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Prior to 1857, anyone in the United States who declared themselves to be an architect was one. Despite many great examples of high American architecture prior to that date, there were still no binding rules or tests of admission for someone to become an architect. Anyone, no matter their level of training, knowledge or expertise, had equal claim to anyone else as far as calling themselves an architect was concerned.

This state of affairs was untenable for a profession that aspired to high achievement and import. As a result, in 1857, New York’s most prominent architects combined their efforts and formed the American Institution of Architects, a professional organization that had as its mission the furtherance of the architectural trades through the maintenance of high standards, ethics and excellence of craft.

These efforts proved to be a pivotal action as American cities began a period of unprecedented expansion over the following decades. With the advent of the first true skyscraper in 1884, American architecture entered a boom period that arguably hasn’t abated up to the present. By 1908, the Singer Building in New York City topped out at 47 stories and 612 feet in stature, making it the world’s tallest building, albeit briefly. Only 25 years before, the tallest building had been just a tiny fraction of that height.

The skyscraper marked the beginning of a new paradigm of urban living. And the styles in which these monuments of steel and chrome towered towards the sky were uniquely American in character. It is almost hard to overstate the importance that the establishment of the American Institute of Architects played in all of this. The public, many members of which had grown up in farmhouses and other rural settings, quickly learned to trust their lives to novelties like taking an elevator to the 30th floor. Without this level of public trust, largely instilled by the manifest professionalism required by the AIA of all its members, the great skyscrapers from Chicago to New York would have likely stood vacant. Instead, they became a linchpin in the American project, with the country becoming the dominant economic force on the planet throughout the 20th century.

Today, the AIA is run by renowned architect and historian Robert Ivy. His chairmanship is one that has been held by some of the greatest names in U.S. architectural history. Under his guidance, the organization is intent on designing a better future for all.

Lung cancer is multifactorial because both genetic and environmental factors predispose to the condition. One of the well-documented ecological predisposing factors is tobacco smoking. There is a study that demonstrates the role of smoking-gene interactions in cancer etiology.

The study identified three single-nucleotide polymorphisms which are responsible for developing diseases. Among the three SNPs, one was for squamous cell carcinoma and the rest coded for non-small cell cancer of the lungs. The polymorphs offer potential biomarkers for screening and intervention of the risk of lung cancer through the examination of smoking behavior. The SNPs are useful for individual-based treatment plan prediction and prognosis.

The study aims at including other populations other than the Caucasians only. With the availability of more genotype data, the interactions between genes and smoking behavior would be more evident in the study on lung cancer.

Eric Lefkofsky is among the most influential tech figures in Chicago. He is well-known to donate large sums of money towards cancer studies. Eric also advocates for smarter approaches to curing cancer. Eric is behind a health-tech startup known as Tempus that tries to modernize the treatment of tumors. Tempus’ work is to collect and analyze genomic data using proprietary algorithms and statistical analysis tools. The purpose of data analysis is to provide the healthcare personnel with personalized and precise therapy. The firm uses state-of-the-art technology to sequence and analyze genomic data.

Born in 1969, Eric Lefkofsky schooled at the University of Chicago and achieved a Juris Doctor from the University of Michigan Law School. He is an American businessman who co-founded Tempus, Lightbank, ECHO, and Groupon. Lightbank is a venture fund that invests in disruptive technologies.

Together with his wife, Eric started Lefkofsky Foundation which is a charitable organization to support educational, scientific, and philanthropic trusts and causes globally. So far, the foundation has funded over 50 charitable organizations. The corporation focuses on children. Through the foundation, Eric advances high-impact initiatives that aim at improving the lives of underserved people in the communities.

The Lefkofsky family joined The Giving Pledge in 2013 where they donate a lot of cash to philanthropy. Eric is a trustee of Steppenwolf Theatre Company and Lurie Children’s Hospital. He teaches on entrepreneurship and how to build technology-based companies at the University of Chicago.

Eric Lefkofsky says that there are untapped molecular databases in healthcare hence he tries to develop applications that target the health field. He prides in reducing the cost of sequencing and analyzing genomes through his company, Tempus. He aims to personalize therapies for patients.

Sujit Choudhry is the director for the Center for Constitutional Transitions. In July 2017, Mr Choudhry joined a group of constitutional experts from around the world in a workshop in the Ukrainian capital Kiev. The workshop was hosted by notable constitutional advocacy groups in the country including the center of policy and legal reform and international institute for democracy and electorate assistance. Also involved in organizing this high profile event were multiple intergovernmental organizations which have been on the forefront of advocating for democracy all around the globe. Key among the issues which were discussed in the workshop was the semi-presidential system of government as well as the constitutional challenges that the state of Ukraine currently faces.

Sujit Choudhry expressed gratitude at getting the opportunity to interact with professionals of such a high repute in the field of constitutional and democratic governance. He, however, noted that the Ukrainian democracy was not very stable. Among the key pointers to this fact, noted Mr Choudhry, is the presidency power, weak political parties and the legislature electoral system. All these factors have been responsible for creating an unstable democratic system in Ukraine according to Mr Choudhry. He, however, expressed optimism at recent events which gave hope for the Ukrainian democracy. One of such events was the involvement of a democratic process in constitutional decision making. This, Mr Choudhry said, would allow thought leaders in the constitution-making process to collect and discuss policies from different quarters which would aid in the constitution making process.   Read his views on socially political related issues on

Sujit Choudhry is a respected authority in comparative constitutional law and politics and has had the privilege to speak in over 20 countries on this topic. It is this vast knowledge in the field that landed him at the helm of the Center for Constitutional Transitions which has been actively involved the constitution-making processes of numerous countries around the world. Besides being the director for the Center for Constitutional Transitions, Mr Choudhry is also a law professor at the University of California. He served as the dean for the Berkeley School of Law in the same university.  Additional reading on

A note-worthy article here.

Sujit Choudhry holds Law Degrees from three of the most reputable universities in the world in Oxford, Toronto and Harvard.  Follow and read his tweets, visit his page.

More to read about his work on


The Centre for Constitutional Transitions Director Sujit Choudhry was among the legal experts who converged at Kiev in July this year to discuss the semi-presidential government system of Ukraine. Among those in attendance were representatives of the Centre for Policy and Legal Reform, the International Institute for Democracy and Electorate Assistance, among other international bodies. According to Sujit Choudhry, the stability of Ukraine democracy has been under challenges. The weakness of political parties, too much power gets vested on the presidency at the expense of other arms of government, and a weakened electoral system were some of the obstacles.

Mr. Choudhry, who has served as a constitutional consultant for various jurisdictions across the globe, was joined by other notable people for this event. They included the likes of Thomas Sidelius of Dalarna University; Ukraine Representative on Human Rights, Vladimir Vasikenko; a member of the constitutional commission of Ukraine, Sergyi Holovatyi; and the presidential representative in the Supreme Court, Viktor Musiaka among others.

In addition to lecturing in various parts of the world on constitutional matters, Sujit has also authored a book Constitutional Making, a collection of classic articles, scholarly writings, and Constitutional law case studies, has received extensive readership among legal scholars.  Related article on

Additional reference here.

By promoting and gathering information about constitution building, the Centre for Constitutional Transitions facilitates constitutional experts from various countries of the world to tender tried-and-tested policy choices to governments. Through partnering with other stakeholders, the organization helps in the conceptualization of projects and training and recruitment of experts as well as the publishing of the results of research.  Click on for further reading.

Not only is Mr. Sujit Choudhry the first Indian-Ameican dean of the University of California at Berkeley Law School, but he is also a reputed expert in comparative constitutional law. The 47-year old scholar is also a holder of Master’s in Law (LL.M) from Harvard University and a bachelor’s in law (LL.B) from Oxford University. More to read on

Being the director of the reputed Centre for Constitutional Transitions, Prof. Choudhry has traversed various countries from Africa to Asia and Europe offering legal expertise in the field of constitutional law. When it comes to designing constitutions, the Professor has a unique leverage because of his training in comparative constitutional law and politics.  Read more about his works, check

Read this relevant article on


Sujit Choudhry is the Professor of Law at the University of California, Berkley- School of Law. He is also the Founding Director of the Center for Constitutional Transitions whose primary focus is to mobilize knowledge to support the constitutional transition. According to him, the people lack adequate and up-to-date information which hinders constitutional advice; therefore, he came up with the organization to help provide the people with the required knowledge in democratic transition. Sujit got the constitutional knowledge of different places through his studies in law degree in three different universities, that is, Toronto, Harvard, and Oxford.  Additional article on

Sujit Choudhry was an immigrant with his two parents both professors. Sujit explained in a recent interview that his knowledge in comparative constitutional law has also contributed to his successes. In different parts of the world, he first understands the environment and immerses himself in it so that he can make the best constitutional advice. Sujit explains that he had to learn from his setbacks for better reinventions as this is the key to success. If given unlimited funds and time, Sujit tells that he would make an organization that uses multiple languages to host and organize the essential constitutional cases.   Additional reference here.

He brought together a team of experts including scholars and practitioners from across the world to create global knowledge networks. His plan is for his organization in partnership with Electoral Assistance and International Institute for Democracy to complete three of their new projects. Related article on

Sujit Choudhry himself in his early life attended the University of McGill where he did a Bachelor of Science. Later he attended the University of Oxford doing Bachelor of Arts in Law, pursued a Bachelor of Laws at the University of Toronto and finally did a Master of Laws in the Harvard Law School. According to,  Sujit began his career as a Law Clerk in the Supreme Courts of Canada. He got another position as an Assistant Professor of Law at the University of Law. He got other several jobs such as Cecelia Goetz Professor of Law at New York University School of Law until he got to be a professor at the University of California, Berkley- School of Law.  More to read on

Relevant article to read on

Unlike other billionaires who only have their businesses in one industry, Chris Burch knows it takes many different income streams to make an impact for the long term. He wanted to ensure he would be safe even if the industry he was in was not safe so he worked to put himself in many different industries. Now, he is working in the real estate industry, lodging and even fashion industry. He also does what he can to make things better for people who are in different situations so they will have a chance at making things easier on themselves.  Additional article on

For Chris Burch, business is all about how to help other people. He wants to help customers and give them the opportunities they need. He also wants them to realize they can do more with what he has to offer them. For Chris Burch, this means he will need to try different things on his own. He also wants to make all the necessary opportunities people can use in their lives. Since he is confident in his abilities in every way possible, he knows what to do to make things better. He also knows he can try different things with the right type of risk.   For his shared ideas and insights, check

Taking risks is a huge part of any business. Chris Burch likes to take risks he knows are going to pay off for him in the long run. In fact, most of the businesses he is a part of were risky when he started them. He wanted people to realize they would be able to get more from the situations they were in so he took the time to calculate all the risks that they were a part of. Since Chris Burch knew what he was doing, he also knew he would need to make things easier for those who were involved in those risks.  Read about his impressive resort, click on

Read additional article here.

Despite working hard to try and make the businesses the best they could be, Chris Burch was making a great name for himself in the business. He tried his best to show people what they could get out of each of the situations they were in. He also wanted everyone to know what they could do to make their own lives better. Starting with the different options they had, Chris Burch knew just what to do to give people the chances they could enjoy on their own. He wanted everyone to be successful.  Hop over to and read more about the diversity of his vision and output.

Here’s a overview of his diverse investment on

If you haven’t heard of Ted Bauman, he is an editor with The Sovereign Society, a publishing company predicated on providing advice related to tax strategies and investments. Bauman has been with the company since 2013 and is responsible for editing three publications: Smart Money Alert, The Bauman Letter, and lastly, Plan B Club.

Although a United States citizen, Bauman attended the University of Cape Town (located in South Africa), where he earned his Master’s degree in History and Economics. After completing his studies, Buman began a career that would span 25 years in the African continent; Bauman has held a succession of high-profile roles throughout his illustrious career, which included positions in the nonprofit realm, most notably low-cost housing. Throughout much of the 2000’s, Bauman worked for several government agencies (in varying capacities) like the European grant-making agencies, the United Nations, and the South African government; his roles typically involved consultative work, housing and urban planning, and finance. Many of these roles contributed to Bauman becoming a worldly businessman; he has traveled throughout Africa, Europe, and Asia.

It wasn’t until 2008 before Bauman would return to the United States; after making his way back into the country, he landed a role with the renowned Habitat for Humanity, serving as the organization’s Director of International Housing. He remained with Habitat for Humanity until 2013, which is when he decided to pursue his true passions, research, and writing. This newfound passion would ultimately lead Ted Bauman to The Sovereign Society in 2013.

In addition to his editorial work with the Smart Money Alert, The Bauman Letter, and the Plan B Club, Bauman contributes to The Sovereign Investor Daily, which is comprised of articles related to international migration, asset protection, and privacy issues. Furthermore, Bauman has been praised for his contributions to international journals like the Small Enterprise Development and Urbanization and The Journal of Microfinance. He also Co-authored “Where to Stash Your Cash (legally),” which provides readers with a wealth of information related to saving on taxes, investing and growing money, protecting wealth, and a number of other topics related to finance.

If you’re interested in learning more about Ted Bauman, he makes regular posts on his Google Plus page, where he where publically shares his views on the misappropriation of charity donations, the state of healthcare in America, the economy, and much more. As an accomplished writer, Bauman’s expositions on these various topics are eye-opening and immensely insightful, and therefore, worth reading.

It can be easy, in a country like America, to take a constitution for granted. For American citizens, the U.S. Constitution seems to have almost been written in a vacuum, the only connections to when it was written being the words themselves and a few oil paintings of those present for the process. Of course, no constitution that has ever been written or will ever be written is written in a vacuum. There are specific events and challenges occurring at that specific time in history which leave an indelible mark upon the finished product.   For additional reading, check

Sujit Choudhry seeks to understand these processes, and, more importantly, assist key policy influencers in countries around the world in understanding these processes, so that when a new constitution is written, it is fair and equitable for everyone in the country it is written for. Sujit Choudhry is the Director of the Center for Constitutional Transitions, which mobilizes leading international experts to complete research projects on relevant topics to create “evidence-based policy options” for those in positions of power during the constitution-writing process. Click on for further reference.

One example of Sujit Choudhry’s work is when, earlier this year, he traveled to Kiev, Ukraine, to discuss the Ukranian semi-presidential system with other policy experts. His vast experience in constitutional law, both as director of the Center for Constitutional Transitions, and as the I. Michael Heyman Professor of Law at the University of California, Berkeley – School of Law, gave him prominence among those present. Additional article on

He asserted that “democratization in Ukraine has not been stable,” citing challenges such as concentrated presidential power and weak political parties.  Click this for a related article.

Sujit Choudhry’s commitment to understand the entire situation was evidenced by him being joined by Vladimir Vasilenko, Ukraine’s representative on Human Rights, Sergyi Holovatyi, a member of the constitutional commission of Ukraine, and Viktor Musiaka, presidential representative in the Ukrainian Supreme Court, as well as other prominent members of the Ukranian government. Being willing to listen to stakeholders throughout the process is indicative of Sujit Choudhry’s continued humility despite his own considerable knowledge and success in this field. When all voices are heard, the resulting policies and recommendations are more likely to stand the test of time. More to read on

Read his blogs visit

Betsy Devos is a devoted successful woman who is not ceasing in assisting every student who requires education in the United States. Together with her husband, Betsy launched The Dick and Betsy Family Foundation. The foundation has an objective of changing the lives of students from poor backgrounds by helping them get a good education through scholarships. She is a lady of great purpose who has successfully made it in social businesses and done so much humanitarian work. The Dick and Betsy Foundation was able to make $ 11.6 million in the year 2015 and as result, a number of good projects in the US were funded. The United States recognized Betsy and her family and they were highly supported for their goodwill.


In one of her hard works, Betsy was an energetic activist on making the education better for everyone. She is now a cabinet secretary of education at the Trump government. Betsy is a committed lady who also involved herself in charter schools and so far she funded various schools such as Success Academy Charter Schools and also Potter’s House School. She is a woman who focuses on what’s best and believes that one of the shortcomings of the Education system in the US is based on using old ideas. To get away with this she advises people to focus on new measures that will help the students who need education.


Betsy Devos is an excellent doer who puts her mind on many things that will help the society, other than education she has taken part in enhancing the research in medicine which is doing well so far. Betsy is progressing in everything that she puts her actions in. their foundation achieved $100 million in a period of five years that was able to cater for proposed projects that are in the aim of making The society a better place


Due to her enthusiasm in making education better for everyone, Betsy is traveling around the United States so that he can see what kind of education goes on in various schools. Her good work has also been noticed by a number of firms which are helping her. As a cabinet secretary of Education Betsy establishes her great ideas to improve it.


Due to her decent association with educators and a number of parents has also enhanced he education sector. Students are now able to get the opportunity to go to the schools that they prefer and as result make their careers a reality. An example of a place that students have gained from is Columbia. To wind up, Betsy Devos encourages other educators to implement new ways that will tackle the challenges that are brought with education.


Follow Betsy DeVos on twitter.

Bruno Fagali is one of the most respected and successful lawyers in Brazil, based in Sao Paulo. He studied law at the famous Pontifical Catholic University in Brazil and went on to work for some of the most prominent law firms in the country, including Manesco, Ramirez, Azevedo, and Marques. Working at some of the top law firms in the country gave him the exposure as well as the experience he needed in the field of law, which he used productively to start his law firm by the name of Fagali Advocacy. Bruno Fagali is considered to be an expert in the matters of corporate law, compliance law, regulatory law, administrative law, mergers and acquisitions, finance law, and more. Bruno Fagali has successfully fought many lawsuits for his clients, which includes some of the most influential public figures and political personalities as well as corporate firms in the country.

One of the primary legal services that Bruno Fagali provides is ensuring that his clients’ businesses are following the rules and regulations of the country. There are many compliance laws that need to be followed by the business entities, and in the case of overlap, there are compliance issues that the organizations and business entities might have to face. It is for this reason; legal counsel is hired to get help regarding compliance and regulatory issues. Currently, Bruno Fagali serves as the Corporate Integrity Manager at Novo/SB Marketing Agency. He also runs the firm Fagali Advocacy, which is one of the topmost law firms in Sao Paulo.

Bruno Fagali has also done a specialized course on compliance, administrative, and regulatory law from Getulio Vargas Foundation. He has helped many of his clients understand the complexities of business and corporate regulations and design their business framework accordingly so that it is compliant and free from legal penalties. Bruno Fagali studies thoroughly every case he comes across to ensure that he is able to get the outcome desired by the client. With the experience of many years backing him, Bruno Fagali has a highly impressive and successful track record that makes him a highly reliable and experienced attorney in Brazil.