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The standoff between Spain and Catalonia has been going on for a while now. Sujit Choudhry and other constitutional lawyers wrote an open letter to the two governments to encourage dialogue and prevent the looming crisis. In the letter, they ask the Catalonian president to show his people’s commitment to secession from Spain by organizing a referendum. They believe that this is the only way the Spanish government can even consider the plea of the people from Catalonia. The scholars further state that it is in everyone’s best interest for a peaceful solution to be found as soon as possible. They applauded the President’s decision to postpone the declaration of independence to give time for more talks.

Sujit Choudhry and his team also note that not everyone in Catalonia is for the secession plans and they believe that this minority opinion should also be considered. They condemned the manner in which Spain’s government used force to prevent the people of Catalonia from expressing their views in the first referendum attempt by Catalonia. They state that this was a violation of human rights for the people of Catalonia. Sujit Choudhry also says that if things are left to continue the way they are right now, then the existing crisis between the two will take a turn for the worst. The scholars state that the people of Catalonia should be heard and this can only be done through a referendum.  Additional article on

According to, Sujit Choudhry is a Professor of Law at the University of California and also a founding director of the Center of Constitutional Transitions. He has vast experience in Constitutional Law and has advised several countries while building their constitutions. He is also part of the United Nations Mediation roster which has helped in finding solutions to so many conflicts in the past.

For updates on his recent timeline activities, head over to this.

The Center for Constitutional Transitions, where Sujit is a director, gathers knowledge to support constitutional building by networking experts to carry out research projects. The organization has worked with over 50 experts and 25 nations in the process of building the law. His experience includes public dialogue sessions with civil societies and other stakeholders giving him the knowledge to speak about the Catalonia Spain stand-off.  Check on to read more about his advisory works.

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Foreign exchange market, commonly referred as forex, is the biggest financial and the fastest growing market. In Forex markets, people trade government-issued currencies from across the globe. If a trader wants to change his or her dollars to pounds, he or she should engage in forex trade. Apart from exchanging money from one currency to another, forex enables speculative traders to buy a given currency, hold it and sell it when its value goes up. This way, traders are able to earn profits.

According to Netpicks, before investors can initiate trades, they pay two currencies. For examples, one can pay US dollars with Japanese Yen, commonly denoted as USD/JPY. Such pairings gives the amount of the second currency that one can exchange for one units of the first currency. Since the process is demand-based, the values of the currencies change as traders transact. Principally, a strong demand for a currency will see its value rise. A low demand occasions the value to fall.

Speculative traders know about the importance of value of the currency. A speculative seller will make a trade when he or she believes that the value of the currency is more than its actual value. On the other hand, a speculative buyer will buy a currency when it is cheap, especially when its market value is lower than its actual value. During buying and selling, the difference in values results in profit or loss. Related article to read here

Netpicks posts that one of the benefits of forex trading is the low initial investment needed. With just a few hundred dollars, one can begin trading. Secondly, Forex is a 24/7 market. One can trade whenever he or she is free. This means that an investor can use his part time to trade and increase his or her income. Secondly, with its real-time feature, a trader can make profits in as less as one minute of investing.   More trading tips here.

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Netpicks Trading Strategies is an American company that is dedicated to providing trading education to amateur and seasoned traders. Netpicks’ training covers futures, forex, signals, stocks and swing trading. The noble corporation is headquartered in Irvin, Texas. For updates on their recent timeline activities, click on this useful link.

Netpicks, which is an eleven-year-old company, helps regular traders to turn their investments into a stable source of income. It boasts of a highly qualified team of trainers. Each of the trainers has over 25 years of experience in his or her respective field.  Connect now, hit on

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Learning Our Lessons From Sujit Choudhry

We know the voice and its message.  Men like Sujit Choudhry are that voice “in the wilderness” who scream out.  They speak to us from afar.

Had we been close to Sujit’s voice, we would already understand. The world is changing fast. What society had 10 years ago, we no longer have claim on. This is both a great and tragic concept to grasp. People fight for their claim to live peacefully, so the world we have today is part of their past effort.   For update on this recent tmeline activities, click this useful link.

The dynamic between contented nations and those in transition is great. To know this challenge is to know the message of Sujit Choudhry. It is the message that he screams out to us. We as individuals benefit when we take heed to the trials of humanity. There’s a great deal to learn through Sujit Choudhry, and it’s best we open our ears now. To read more about the professor, check on

Why Transition Does Matter

Transition is not limited oppressed nations and their struggles.  Even in ideal states, the need for progress is an urgent need. The successful empires on this planet aren’t perfect. They have a long haul to go and must continue to practice the stages of transition. When this happens, we have a clear picture of why our work together truly matters.

Our existence teaches us that there’s a never ending potential for sudden failure. These obstacles can be solved, but we need the presence of legal transition to do it with. Without using the tools of transition, even great nations will fall. They will go into disarray if without a method to solve oppositions against liberty, freedom and equality.  For more of the professor’s view on politically related issues, hit on

The Unstoppable Power Of World Transition

Transition is an unstoppable force because of its role in world order. Society will receive nothing that it does not fight for. All powers are in the hands of the people as a result. For every breathing person alive, there is power to move nations and power to improve society with.  Sujit Choudhry knows it well and wants you to also have his understanding. More related article on

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Recently, the region in Spain known as Catalonia had a vote for their independence from the country. Several scholars specializing in constitutional law authored a letter to the governments of Catalonia and Spain expressing the desire to see some sort of agreement as opposed to the gridlock that has taken place. There is a real curiosity concerning how committed President Puigdemont is to secession, and what his plans are. Regardless, many of the Catalan people seem to want the secession. Of the academics that authored the letter include constitutional law expert Sujit Choudhry.

Sujit Choudhry is a world renown advisor and expert on constitutional law. His vast knowledge on the subject is prodigious. He has degrees from prestigious colleges such as Harvard, Oxford, and the University of Toronto, as well as having an impressive work history.   Additional article on  Sujit Choudhry served as a co-founder for the Center of Constitutional Transitions, an institution that creates and facilitates information in support of constitution building by gathering and directing global organizations of professionals to create policy options based on hard evidence for various types of organizations.  Related reading here.

Sujit Choudhry also holds distinguished honors such as the Michael Heyman Professor of Law. Before that he was the Cecilia Goetz Professor of Law, and the Scholll Chair at Toronto University. A world-wide expert on constitutional law and politics, Choudhry has also been a constitutional advisor for 20 years now. With almost 100 articles published, Choudhry has also authored several books within his fields of expertise. More of this on

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Sujit Choudhry has provided consultation to such organizations as the United Nations as well as the World Bank Institute. Choudhry’s peers acknowledge him as a respected authority in his field, he has travelled to several countries giving conferences on various issues such as decentralization, federalism, secession, the rights of minorities and other protected groups, and more. If you’re interested in learning more about Mr. Choudhry, visit his website, click

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Prior to 1857, anyone in the United States who declared themselves to be an architect was one. Despite many great examples of high American architecture prior to that date, there were still no binding rules or tests of admission for someone to become an architect. Anyone, no matter their level of training, knowledge or expertise, had equal claim to anyone else as far as calling themselves an architect was concerned.

This state of affairs was untenable for a profession that aspired to high achievement and import. As a result, in 1857, New York’s most prominent architects combined their efforts and formed the American Institution of Architects, a professional organization that had as its mission the furtherance of the architectural trades through the maintenance of high standards, ethics and excellence of craft.

These efforts proved to be a pivotal action as American cities began a period of unprecedented expansion over the following decades. With the advent of the first true skyscraper in 1884, American architecture entered a boom period that arguably hasn’t abated up to the present. By 1908, the Singer Building in New York City topped out at 47 stories and 612 feet in stature, making it the world’s tallest building, albeit briefly. Only 25 years before, the tallest building had been just a tiny fraction of that height.

The skyscraper marked the beginning of a new paradigm of urban living. And the styles in which these monuments of steel and chrome towered towards the sky were uniquely American in character. It is almost hard to overstate the importance that the establishment of the American Institute of Architects played in all of this. The public, many members of which had grown up in farmhouses and other rural settings, quickly learned to trust their lives to novelties like taking an elevator to the 30th floor. Without this level of public trust, largely instilled by the manifest professionalism required by the AIA of all its members, the great skyscrapers from Chicago to New York would have likely stood vacant. Instead, they became a linchpin in the American project, with the country becoming the dominant economic force on the planet throughout the 20th century.

Today, the AIA is run by renowned architect and historian Robert Ivy. His chairmanship is one that has been held by some of the greatest names in U.S. architectural history. Under his guidance, the organization is intent on designing a better future for all.

Lung cancer is multifactorial because both genetic and environmental factors predispose to the condition. One of the well-documented ecological predisposing factors is tobacco smoking. There is a study that demonstrates the role of smoking-gene interactions in cancer etiology.

The study identified three single-nucleotide polymorphisms which are responsible for developing diseases. Among the three SNPs, one was for squamous cell carcinoma and the rest coded for non-small cell cancer of the lungs. The polymorphs offer potential biomarkers for screening and intervention of the risk of lung cancer through the examination of smoking behavior. The SNPs are useful for individual-based treatment plan prediction and prognosis.

The study aims at including other populations other than the Caucasians only. With the availability of more genotype data, the interactions between genes and smoking behavior would be more evident in the study on lung cancer.

Eric Lefkofsky is among the most influential tech figures in Chicago. He is well-known to donate large sums of money towards cancer studies. Eric also advocates for smarter approaches to curing cancer. Eric is behind a health-tech startup known as Tempus that tries to modernize the treatment of tumors. Tempus’ work is to collect and analyze genomic data using proprietary algorithms and statistical analysis tools. The purpose of data analysis is to provide the healthcare personnel with personalized and precise therapy. The firm uses state-of-the-art technology to sequence and analyze genomic data.

Born in 1969, Eric Lefkofsky schooled at the University of Chicago and achieved a Juris Doctor from the University of Michigan Law School. He is an American businessman who co-founded Tempus, Lightbank, ECHO, and Groupon. Lightbank is a venture fund that invests in disruptive technologies.

Together with his wife, Eric started Lefkofsky Foundation which is a charitable organization to support educational, scientific, and philanthropic trusts and causes globally. So far, the foundation has funded over 50 charitable organizations. The corporation focuses on children. Through the foundation, Eric advances high-impact initiatives that aim at improving the lives of underserved people in the communities.

The Lefkofsky family joined The Giving Pledge in 2013 where they donate a lot of cash to philanthropy. Eric is a trustee of Steppenwolf Theatre Company and Lurie Children’s Hospital. He teaches on entrepreneurship and how to build technology-based companies at the University of Chicago.

Eric Lefkofsky says that there are untapped molecular databases in healthcare hence he tries to develop applications that target the health field. He prides in reducing the cost of sequencing and analyzing genomes through his company, Tempus. He aims to personalize therapies for patients.

Sujit Choudhry is the director for the Center for Constitutional Transitions. In July 2017, Mr Choudhry joined a group of constitutional experts from around the world in a workshop in the Ukrainian capital Kiev. The workshop was hosted by notable constitutional advocacy groups in the country including the center of policy and legal reform and international institute for democracy and electorate assistance. Also involved in organizing this high profile event were multiple intergovernmental organizations which have been on the forefront of advocating for democracy all around the globe. Key among the issues which were discussed in the workshop was the semi-presidential system of government as well as the constitutional challenges that the state of Ukraine currently faces.

Sujit Choudhry expressed gratitude at getting the opportunity to interact with professionals of such a high repute in the field of constitutional and democratic governance. He, however, noted that the Ukrainian democracy was not very stable. Among the key pointers to this fact, noted Mr Choudhry, is the presidency power, weak political parties and the legislature electoral system. All these factors have been responsible for creating an unstable democratic system in Ukraine according to Mr Choudhry. He, however, expressed optimism at recent events which gave hope for the Ukrainian democracy. One of such events was the involvement of a democratic process in constitutional decision making. This, Mr Choudhry said, would allow thought leaders in the constitution-making process to collect and discuss policies from different quarters which would aid in the constitution making process.   Read his views on socially political related issues on

Sujit Choudhry is a respected authority in comparative constitutional law and politics and has had the privilege to speak in over 20 countries on this topic. It is this vast knowledge in the field that landed him at the helm of the Center for Constitutional Transitions which has been actively involved the constitution-making processes of numerous countries around the world. Besides being the director for the Center for Constitutional Transitions, Mr Choudhry is also a law professor at the University of California. He served as the dean for the Berkeley School of Law in the same university.  Additional reading on

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Sujit Choudhry holds Law Degrees from three of the most reputable universities in the world in Oxford, Toronto and Harvard.  Follow and read his tweets, visit his page.

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The Centre for Constitutional Transitions Director Sujit Choudhry was among the legal experts who converged at Kiev in July this year to discuss the semi-presidential government system of Ukraine. Among those in attendance were representatives of the Centre for Policy and Legal Reform, the International Institute for Democracy and Electorate Assistance, among other international bodies. According to Sujit Choudhry, the stability of Ukraine democracy has been under challenges. The weakness of political parties, too much power gets vested on the presidency at the expense of other arms of government, and a weakened electoral system were some of the obstacles.

Mr. Sujit Choudhry, who has served as a constitutional consultant for various jurisdictions across the globe, was joined by other notable people for this event. They included the likes of Thomas Sidelius of Dalarna University; Ukraine Representative on Human Rights, Vladimir Vasikenko; a member of the constitutional commission of Ukraine, Sergyi Holovatyi; and the presidential representative in the Supreme Court, Viktor Musiaka among others.

In addition to lecturing in various parts of the world on constitutional matters, Sujit has also authored a book Constitutional Making, a collection of classic articles, scholarly writings, and Constitutional law case studies, has received extensive readership among legal scholars.  Related article on

Additional reference here.

By promoting and gathering information about constitution building, the Centre for Constitutional Transitions facilitates constitutional experts from various countries of the world to tender tried-and-tested policy choices to governments. Through partnering with other stakeholders, the organization helps in the conceptualization of projects and training and recruitment of experts as well as the publishing of the results of research.  Click on for further reading.

Not only is Mr. Sujit Choudhry the first Indian-Ameican dean of the University of California at Berkeley Law School, but he is also a reputed expert in comparative constitutional law. The 47-year old scholar is also a holder of Master’s in Law (LL.M) from Harvard University and a bachelor’s in law (LL.B) from Oxford University.

Being the director of the reputed Centre for Constitutional Transitions, Prof. Choudhry has traversed various countries from Africa to Asia and Europe offering legal expertise in the field of constitutional law. When it comes to designing constitutions, the Professor has a unique leverage because of his training in comparative constitutional law and politics.  Read more about his works, check

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